Fans of Super Mario play with them. Doctors study them. Chefs around the globe cook with them. They appear overnight, disappear just as fast and leave no trace of their visit. Students with this world are called mycologists and now, the fungus will be viewed as a possible treatment for cancer, PTSD-post-traumatic stress disorder and some psychological disorders.
Mushrooms, sometimes called toadstools, are fleshy bodies of fungus that grow above ground on soil or on a food source. They are separated from the plant world in a kingdom all their very own called Myceteae because they cannot contain chlorophyll like green plants.
Without the process of photosynthesis, some mushrooms obtain nutrients by breaking down organic matter or by feeding from higher plants penis envy mushrooms. These are called decomposers. Another sector attacks living plants to kill and consume them and they’re called parasites. Edible and poisonous varieties are mycorrhizal and are observed on or near roots of trees such as oaks, pines and firs.
For humans, mushrooms may do certainly one of three things-nourish, heal or poison. Few are benign. The three most popular edible versions with this’meat of the vegetable world’are the oyster, morel and chanterelles.
They are used extensively in cuisine from China, Korea, Japan and India. In reality, China may be the world’s largest producer cultivating over 50% of all mushrooms consumed worldwide. The majority of the edible variety in our supermarkets have now been grown commercially on farms and include shiitake, portobello and enoki.
Eastern medicine, especially traditional Chinese practices, has used mushrooms for centuries. In the U.S., studies were conducted in early’60s for possible methods to modulate the immune protection system and to inhibit tumor growth with extracts used in cancer research.
Mushrooms were also used ritually by the natives of Mesoamerica for tens of thousands of years. Called the’flesh of the gods’by Aztecs, mushrooms were widely consumed in religious ceremonies by cultures through the Americas. Cave paintings in Spain and Algeria depict ritualized ingestion dating back in terms of 9000 years. Questioned by Christian authorities on both parties of the Atlantic, psilocybin use was suppressed until Western psychiatry rediscovered it after World War II.
A 1957 article in Life Magazine titled “Seeking the Magic Mushroom” spurred the interest of America. The following year, a Swiss scientist named Albert Hofman, identified psilocybin and psilocin while the active compounds in the’magic’mushrooms. This prompted the creation of the Harvard Psilocybin Project led by American psychologist Timothy Leary at Harvard University to study the effects of the compound on humans.
In the quarter century that followed, 40,000 patients got psilocybin and other hallucinogens such as LSD and mescaline. Significantly more than 1,000 research papers were produced. Once the us government took notice of the growing subculture open to adopting the use, regulations were enacted.
The Nixon Administration began regulations, including the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. The law created five schedules of increasing severity under which drugs were to be classified. Psilocybin was devote probably the most restrictive schedule I along side marijuana and MDMA. Each was defined as having a “high potential for abuse, no currently acceptable medical use and too little accepted safety.”
This ended the research for almost 25 years until recently when studies exposed for potential used in dealing with or resolving PTSD-post-traumatic stress disorder along side anxiety issues. At the time of June 2014, whole mushrooms or extracts have now been studied in 32 human clinical trials registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health due to their potential effects on many different diseases and conditions. Some maladies being addressed include cancer, glaucoma, immune functions and inflammatory bowel disease.
The controversial section of research is the utilization of psilocybin, a naturally occurring chemical using mushrooms. Its ability to help people suffering from psychological disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD and anxiety continue to be being explored. Psilocybin has also been shown to be effective in treating addiction to alcohol and cigarettes in a few studies.